||YABBY genes play important roles in the development of lateral organs such as leaves and floral organs in Angiosperms. However, the function of YABBY genes is poorly understood in monocots. We focused on three rice (Oryza sativa) YABBY genes, TONGARI-BOUSHI (TOB1, TOB2, TOB3), which are closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL). To elucidate the function of these YABBY genes, we employed a reverse genetic approach. TOB genes were expressed in bract and lateral organ primordia, but not in meristems. RNAi knockdown of TOB2 or TOB3 in the tob1 mutant caused abnormal spikelet development. Furthermore, simultaneous knockdown of both TOB2 and TOB3 in tob1 affected not only spikelet, but also inflorescence development. In severe cases, the inflorescences comprised naked branches without spikelets. Analysis of inflorescence development at an early stage showed that the observed phenotypic defects were closely associated with a failure to initiate and maintain reproductive meristems. These results indicate that the TOB genes regulate the maintenance and fate of all reproductive meristems. It is likely that the function of FIL/TOB clade YABBY genes has been conserved between Arabidopsis and rice to maintain the proper function of meristems, even though these genes are expressed in lateral organ primordia.